I have been watching the debate about dark energy as a possible explanation of what is causing the universe to expand faster and faster (as cosmologists first discovered 10 years ago). But last night, as I was watching the new series “The Universe”, I was reminded of a particularly interesting facet of Einstein’s relativity theory – the effect of gravity on time. Bottom line of that theory is that time passes slower when you are inside a gravitational field.

This is something NASA has been able to demonstrate by putting atomic clocks in orbit and that the programmers of the GPS satellite system had to take into account to make the system work properly. Clocks (and all other matter) move faster when there is less gravity. Time, as we measure and understand it, passes slower on earth, than in orbit, and it is faster still once you get away from the sun, and even faster when you get out of the Milky Way. This leaves me with 2 questions:

1) If time is passing faster, the further away from a gravitation field you get, wouldn’t that explain why the universe is expanding faster? Eventually, as galaxies get further apart, there is less and less gravity in inner-galactic space, thus (I would assume) time is going faster between galaxies and the “normal” expansion process would be occurring at an accelerated pace. In other words, voids grow faster than matter rich areas of the universe because everything happens faster there. Think of a large balloon that is expanding on a wall of video monitors, some of the videos are playing faster and thus that part is expanding more rapidly. Not only that, be the expansion itself is causing gravity to be less and less on an influence because the galaxies are now further away (more space-time between them). Will time eventually become a run-away engine in the vast emptiness of space? Will the speed of time approach infinity?

Fact: The emptier space is (the less gravity) – the faster time passes.

One way I thought to test this would be to observe the speed of stars (if there are any) or any other matter in the “vast hole in the universe” that was discovered recently. If “emptiness” has the affect of accelerating time, that may be measurable by observing its affect on light traveling through those empty spaces. (objects opposite fast empty holes in the universe would appear closer than they really are)

2) About this time/gravity relationship. I imagine that as gravity approaches infinity as in a black-hole, time approaches zero. If time is slowed down – then what does that say about the spectacular speeds of stars orbiting black-holes? Have those calculations beed adjusted for this? Is there even a mathematical way to express time passing differently in different regions of the universe?

As I type this, it also occurs to me that this may also explain why there seem to be few stars between galaxies – maybe they age and die very quickly. I don’t understand the math well enough to try and calculate the relative difference in the rate of time in inner-galactic space versus on earth – much less in the middle of that billion-light year wide void, but imagine if there is a measurable between the surface of the earth, and 200 miles up in orbit, that a billion-light years of gravity free space might tack on the years pretty quickly.

If any one out there has a science background I would love to hear from you in the comments.

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Excellent site, useful information .Thanks for this great post – I will be sure to check out your blog more often…..........

Or, with no datum possible could it be that the reason why the universe is accelerating in its expansion be that the universe is spinning as well as expanding and thus a centrifugal force is able to overcome gravity? Although it is evident that the universe is not expanding on one plane could this be because we are still at the initial stage of the start of the universe. An oval shape might develop.

I'm against Universe expansion:

For example a question: – The universe expand in any radius at light speed: How can accelerate? At what speed expand the diameter (radius x 2)?

This and more, also doubts, proofs and hypothesis in http://bigbangno.wordpress.com

Sorry if disturb.

Thanks.

I wonder, for the expanding universe were warm?

Time speeding up isn’t about gravity, it’s to do with relativistic speeds and how ‘clocks’ tick slower for a stationary observer when a body they are observing is moving at very, very, very, very, very high speeds. Gravity is irrelevant.

Following the big bang we have speed and distance and thus time. Now let’s imagine that the universe is actually slowing down in its expansion. This slowing down actually effecting time it self. If time were to slow down would the expansion appear to be speeding up?

That is almost impossible to think about. Since our definition of speed relies on time, a slowing of time while expansion occurs at the same “speed” or pace is not possible because of the definition of speed – we would need a new definition of speed to think about it that way.

I often think that if time slowed or even stopped for a few billion years and then started again, we would never know since we are “in the flow” of time. God could pause the game, go grab a snack, and come back and we here in the game, would never know or ever even have the chance of knowing unless we somehow find away to access the system clock, a definition of time that is outside the universe. Something that, since we really can not detect or really even conceive of, I have no clue what it might be. But if you think of something outside the universe we can tune our clocks to, let me know.

*

*

My name is Sam Shepherd; my bio is attached along with a copyright paper that describes the cause of the expanding universe, the explanation as to when the universe began to accelerate. please feel free to email me at [email protected].

Samuel

Shepherd,

A.A.

Chemistry, B.S.ChE, M.S. EnT, DABFET, CHS III

[email protected]

(281)

797-2501

Relativistic Solution

to a

Newtonian Accelerating Universe©

By

Samuel Shepherd

Presented January 5,

2012

At

Barnesville, Ohio

6/26/12

=============================================================

ABSTRACT

Why is the universe

accelerating in its expansion? Since Perlmutter et al identified the fact that

the universe is not only expanding but accelerating; few can explain the reason

for the acceleration. Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the mathematical creation

to explain this acceleration. This paper offers another simple, but elegant and

robust explanation for the initial expansion of the universe followed by its

currently observed acceleration into eternity.

DISCUSSION

When discussing the

accelerating universe, several physical concepts need to be considered. We have

evaluated String Theory, Relativistic and Quantum theory; resulting in a

complete disconnect with Newtonian Physics.

The combining of the infinitely small with the very large completely

collapses in the face of currently understood physics.

This failure has

resulted in a complete revision of the approach. An approach that combines the

relativistic E=mc2 with the conservation of energy as presented in

Newtonian kinetic energy E=1/2 mv2.

As presented in the law

of light; NOTHING CAN TRAVEL FASTER THAN

THE SPEED OF LIGHT

That’s right NOTHING

can travel faster than the speed of light. Is NOTHING something? No it isn’t;

it is only the fabric of space.

Therefore, “NOTHING”

can travel faster than the speed of light. So, how fast can “nothing” travel?

The answer is found at the singularity of a Black Hole, where all matter is

converted to energy. When the singularity reaches a size of less than Planck’s

length (1.6162 x 10-35 m) in a three dimensional space, the energy

(and any associated boson particles) permeates throughout the universe at

speeds exceeding the speed of light. The maximum speed of this energy of

“nothing” , which is “space” itself, is

as follows:

Since; Relativistic

energy (E)=mc2 has to be

equal to the Newtonian (E) = 1/2 mv2

Then ; mc2 = 1/2 mv2

Or upon rearrangement;

v = 1.414 x c

“NOTHING” (or Space) CAN TRAVEL 41.4% FASTER THAN THE SPEED

OF LIGHT

The result of this energy impacting the fabric of space

(pressure) is an accelerating universe, much the same way as molecules of gas

being added at increasing speeds to a balloon causes the balloon surface to

accelerate in its expansion.

But, when did this occur?

In the beginning, the

universe exploded at tremendous speed in very short time (10-52 secs).

Up to this point, gravity was not strong enough to cause any form of black hole

formation, and therefore no accelerating universe was possible. After this point,

the expanse began to slow; gravity became a factor, causing matter to collapse

into black holes and slowing the rate of expansion of the universe.

At this point in

creation, the universe began to accelerate as the rate of black hole formation

increased. This acceleration of black

hole formation created an ever increasing singularity formation; the increase

in the number of singularities (smaller than Planck’s constant) resulted in the

immediate acceleration of fabric of space as the energy is converted from

relativistic to kinetic energy. The resulting universe and fabric of space must

accelerate as the energy from the black hole singularities increase at an

accelerating rate pushing the fabric of space toward eternity.

This acceleration of

space will further dissipate matter to a distance at which gravity can no longer

form black holes. This acceleration of black hole formation will continue until

matter is so dispersed (large distance), from the accelerating universe, that

gravity no longer has an impact and the black hole formation will therefore,

cease. This cessation of black hole formation will stop the further

acceleration of the universe. The universe will continue traveling at a speed

of less than 1.41 times the speed of light until the universe is so dissipated

that no stars or light will be visible.

The implications of

this accelerating universe on time are profound. If space can travel 41% faster

than light, then the apparent age of the universe as measured by Doppler, is

undoubtedly wrong. It is also important to note that an accelerating universe could

have resulted in the Entropic energy we now observe. It is probable that

Entropy did not exist until the universe began to accelerate.

S = c^3 Ak/Gh

Where, the formula for the Bekenstein–Hawking

entropy (S) of a black hole, which depends on the area of the black hole

(A). The constants are the speed of light (c), the Boltzmann constant (k), Newton’s constant (G), and the reduced Planck constant (ħ).

Prior to black hole formation, (A) = 0, and therefore no

entropy existed.

————————————————————————————————————————————————–

Relativistic Solution

to a

Newtonian Accelerating Universe©

By

Samuel Shepherd

Presented January 5,

2012

At

Barnesville, Ohio

6/26/12

=============================================================

ABSTRACT

Why is the universe

accelerating in its expansion? Since Perlmutter et al identified the fact that

the universe is not only expanding but accelerating; few can explain the reason

for the acceleration. Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the mathematical creation

to explain this acceleration. This paper offers another simple, but elegant and

robust explanation for the initial expansion of the universe followed by its

currently observed acceleration into eternity.

DISCUSSION

When discussing the

accelerating universe, several physical concepts need to be considered. We have

evaluated String Theory, Relativistic and Quantum theory; resulting in a

complete disconnect with Newtonian Physics.

The combining of the infinitely small with the very large completely

collapses in the face of currently understood physics.

This failure has

resulted in a complete revision of the approach. An approach that combines the

relativistic E=mc2 with the conservation of energy as presented in

Newtonian kinetic energy E=1/2 mv2.

As presented in the law

of light; NOTHING CAN TRAVEL FASTER THAN

THE SPEED OF LIGHT

That’s right NOTHING

can travel faster than the speed of light. Is NOTHING something? No it isn’t;

it is only the fabric of space.

Therefore, “NOTHING”

can travel faster than the speed of light. So, how fast can “nothing” travel?

The answer is found at the singularity of a Black Hole, where all matter is

converted to energy. When the singularity reaches a size of less than Planck’s

length (1.6162 x 10-35 m) in a three dimensional space, the energy

(and any associated boson particles) permeates throughout the universe at

speeds exceeding the speed of light. The maximum speed of this energy of

“nothing” , which is “space” itself, is

as follows:

Since; Relativistic

energy (E)=mc2 has to be

equal to the Newtonian (E) = 1/2 mv2

Then ; mc2 = 1/2 mv2

Or upon rearrangement;

v = 1.414 x c

“NOTHING” (or Space) CAN TRAVEL 41.4% FASTER THAN THE SPEED

OF LIGHT

The result of this energy impacting the fabric of space

(pressure) is an accelerating universe, much the same way as molecules of gas

being added at increasing speeds to a balloon causes the balloon surface to

accelerate in its expansion.

But, when did this occur?

In the beginning, the

universe exploded at tremendous speed in very short time (10-52 secs).

Up to this point, gravity was not strong enough to cause any form of black hole

formation, and therefore no accelerating universe was possible. After this point,

the expanse began to slow; gravity became a factor, causing matter to collapse

into black holes and slowing the rate of expansion of the universe.

At this point in

creation, the universe began to accelerate as the rate of black hole formation

increased. This acceleration of black

hole formation created an ever increasing singularity formation; the increase

in the number of singularities (smaller than Planck’s constant) resulted in the

immediate acceleration of fabric of space as the energy is converted from

relativistic to kinetic energy. The resulting universe and fabric of space must

accelerate as the energy from the black hole singularities increase at an

accelerating rate pushing the fabric of space toward eternity.

This acceleration of

space will further dissipate matter to a distance at which gravity can no longer

form black holes. This acceleration of black hole formation will continue until

matter is so dispersed (large distance), from the accelerating universe, that

gravity no longer has an impact and the black hole formation will therefore,

cease. This cessation of black hole formation will stop the further

acceleration of the universe. The universe will continue traveling at a speed

of less than 1.41 times the speed of light until the universe is so dissipated

that no stars or light will be visible.

The implications of

this accelerating universe on time are profound. If space can travel 41% faster

than light, then the apparent age of the universe as measured by Doppler, is

undoubtedly wrong. It is also important to note that an accelerating universe could

have resulted in the Entropic energy we now observe. It is probable that

Entropy did not exist until the universe began to accelerate.

S = c^3 Ak/Gh

Where, the formula for the Bekenstein–Hawking

entropy (S) of a black hole, which depends on the area of the black hole

(A). The constants are the speed of light (c), the Boltzmann constant (k), Newton’s constant (G), and the reduced Planck constant (ħ).

Prior to black hole formation, (A) = 0, and therefore no

entropy existed.

————————————————————————————————————————————————–

Sam was born in Barnesville,

Ohio and was raised in Bethesda, Ohio. He is an internationally recognized inventor

and entrepreneur. He currently serves as Director of Technology for Cheltonia,

Ltd, headquartered in the UK and is the Technology Consultant for Missing Link

Technology, L.L.C., Houston, Tx, a company specializing in development and commercialization

of leading edge technologies in the Water, Oil and Gas and Alternative Energy

Industries. He holds degrees in Chemistry/Physics, B.S Chemical Engineering,

M.S Environmental Engineering, and Lifetime Fellow Status at the American

College of Forensic Examiners, with a Class III Certification in Homeland

Security, with specialties in WMD and COBRA (Chemical Ordinance, Biological and

Radiologic Armaments).

Sam started his

career as a laborer in a deep mine in Southeast Ohio and now has over 37 years

experience in the Petro Chemical, Alternative Energy and wastewater industries.

He is currently advising several international energy companies in futuristic

technology development and corporate direction.

He assisted in

the development of technology for the Lunar Outpost Commission for the

Moon/Mars Mission in 1990, he is a private pilot with over 1100 hours of flight

time, developed ballistic absorbing media for military purposes, optimized

technology utilizing artificial blood. He has extensive training in

engineering, chemistry, mathematics, statistics, risk assessment, forensic

engineering and holds 2 certifications in FEMA risk management.

He was the

founder and CEO of Bioset, Inc. from 1995 until he left the company in 2003 and

was the founder and CEO of American Environmental Forensics. He has worked as a

consultant to (2) Department of Defense DARPA teams for the development and

commercialization of Biofuels and Alternative Energy Systems for the military

and civilian application in the “algae to oil” DARPA program.

Sam has authored

8 US patents, 17 International patents and is currently involved in the

development of 4 patents pending. He has developed HTHP mud motors, methane

hydrate recovery technology, waste water sterilization technology, microalgae growth

technology, algae to biocrude and the oil extraction technology that is

currently being employed globally and is actively involved in the

commercialization of the “algae to oil” projects for several Domestic and

International companies.